EL210 Self assessment

2013 оны 03-р сарын 13 Нийтэлсэн Арваазана

Text 1. Bus

How do all the different components of your computer communicate with each other? They use special electronic pathways called a bus. Just like a passenger bus that can transport large amount of people, the computer’s bus can carry a great deal of information. The bus allows the computer’s standard peripherals such as the keyboard, monitor, to talk to each other and other parts of PC.

They are made out of numerous electronic pathways called the circuit lines along which power and data travel. The original IBM PC’s 8-bit bus has 62 lines, 8 of which transmit power to the adapter card. Another 8 to 32 lines carry data to various components such as memory chips or display. The next 20 lines are called address lines. They carry a coded road map to where the information is traveling. Each adapter card has unique destination or address on the route of the bus. The remainders of the bus’s lines carry commands for the standard computer operation such as reading or writing data. Every component plugged into the bus is constantly looking for signals coming down the command line.

When a signal to write data appears only the input/output devices recognize the command, other device such as the memory circuits do not. Alerted by the right command the IO devices check the address lines. If the code matches its address, the adapter accepts the data and follows the new command. Otherwise the adapter simply ignores the command.

Key terms:

Component - бүрэлдэхүүн хэсэг

Communicate – холбогдох, харилцах

Path - зам

Peripheral – гаднын төхөөрөмж

Numerous – олон тооны

Circuit line – хэлхээний шугам

Transmit – дамжуулах

Adapter card – тохируулагч карт

Destination – зориулалт, очих газар

Remainder – үлдсэн, үлдэгдэл

Plug – залгуур, таглах,бөглөх

Appear – гарч ирэх, харагдах, нийтлэгдэх

Accept – хүлээж авах

Ignore – татгалзах, үгүйсгэх

Make out of – тогтдог

Other parts - бусад хэсгүүд

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. various a. one

2. amount b. a lot

3. deal c. different to what has just been stated

4. made out of d. different

5. unique e. accept

6. constantly f. to warn

7. recognize g. to agree to take something

8. alert h. how much there is of something

9. accept i. consist

10. otherwise j. happening a lot, all the time

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1. communicate … each other, 2 a great deal … information, 3. 8 … which transmit power to the adapter card, 4. address .. the route, 5. the route … the bus, 6. remainders … the bus’s lines, 7. commands … the standard computer operation, 8. plugged … the bus, 9. looking … signals

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer

1. What can the computer’s bus do?

a. carry a great deal of information

b. transmit power

c. store the information

2. What types of lines are there?

a. address line, circuit line

b. address line, circuit line, command line

c. address line, circuit line, adapter line

3. Power and data travel along ….

a. address line

b. command line

c. circuit line

4. Signals come down the ….

a. address line

b. command line

c. circuit line

5. When does the adapter accept the data and follows the new command?

a. if the code matches its address

b. if the code doesn’t match the address

c. if there are many addresses

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Таны компьютерын бүх бүрдэл хэсгүүд өөр хоорондоо хэрхэн холбогддог вэ?

2. Тэдгээр нь хэлхээний шугам гэж нэрлэгддэг олон тооны элетрон замуудаас тогтдог.

3. Тохируулагч карт тус бүр нь дамжуулдах шугамын зам дээр цорын ганц давтагдашгүй хаяг, очих газартай байна.

4. Өгөгдлийг бичих дохио ирэх үед зөвхөн ороль гаралтын төхөөрөмж командыг танина.

5. Тохируулагч нь өгөгдлийг хүлээн авч шинэ командыг дагана.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

different components, electronic pathways, large amount of people, a great deal of information, standard peripherals circuit lines, adapter card, memory chips, address lines, unique destination, computer operation, command line, recognize the command, matches its address, accepts the data, ignores the command.

Text 2. Voice-Output Devices

How do blind and visually impaired people read e-mail? They use voice synthesizers that aloud the words on the screen. But what do they do on the heavily graphics-oriented World Wide Web? Many use PC Webspeak, a nonvisual browser, which read HTML-hypertext markup language, the programming code of the Web page-and interprets it directly. Or they rely on Web page designers to provide a text description of graphics or photographs used, which is translated into aural communication.

Voice-output, or speech-synthesis, devices convert digital data into speech-like sounds. These devices are no longer very unusual. You hear such forms of voice output on telephones (“Please hang up and dial your call again”), in soft-drink machines, in cars, in toys and games, and recently in mapping software for vehicle-navigation devices.

Some uses of speech output are simply frivolous or amusing. You can replace your computer start-up beep with the sound of James Brown screaming “I feel good!” Or you can attach a voice annotation to a spread-sheet that says “I Know this look high, Bob, but trust me.”

Key terms:

impaired – согогтой, харалган

voice synthesizer – дууны синтезатор

aloud the words - үгсийг чангаар унших

browser – ачаалагч, дуудагч, хөтөч, програм

the programming code – програмчлалын код

rely – найдах, түшиглэх

Web page designer – вэб хуудас зохиогч

Description – тодорхойлолт

convert - хөрвүүлэх

digital data – тоон өгөгдөл

voice output – дууны гаралт

mapping software – газрын зургийн програм

vehicle-navigation device – тээврийн хэрэгслийн залж чиглүүлэх төхөөрөмж

speech output – ярианы гаралт

start-up beep – эхлэх дуу

attach – хавсаргах, нэмж оруулах

Exercise 1. Match two columns.

1. screen a. translate orally

2. communication b. a device for transporting

3. code c. a commentary, explanatory note

4. interpret d. a system of symbols

5. vehicle e. to take the place of

6. nonvisual f. not serious, unimportant

7. use g. information or image displayed on a monitor

8. frivolous h. employ

9.replace i. impossible to see

10.annotation j. exchange of information

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1. … e-mail, 2. do … the World Wide Web, 3. … HTML-hypertext markup language, 4. the … code of the Web page, 5. a text … of graphics or photographs used, 6. … communication, 7. … data, 8. … sounds, 9. forms of … output, 10. soft-drink … , 11. use of … output, 12. a … annotation.

Exercise 3. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. PC Webspeak …

2. HTML …

3. Voice-output device …

4. Visually impaired people use voice synthesizers

5. PC Webspeak reads …

6. You can replace your computer start-up beep …

7. You can attach a voice annotation …

a. ... that aloud the words on the screen to read e-mail.

b. … to a spread-sheet

c. … hypertext markup language

d. … the programming code of the Web page.

e. … nonvisual browser

f. … with the sound of James Brown.

g. … speech-synthesis

Exercise 4. Choose the best answer

1.What do blind people use to aloud the worlds on the screen?

a.HTML

b.digital data

c.voice synthesizers

2.What do the use on the World Wide Web?

a. telephones

b.PCWebSpeak

c. mapping software

3. What do web page designers provide?

a. a text description

b. graphics

c. photographs

4. What converts digital data into speech-like sounds?

a. speech-synthesis

b. start-up beep

c. a spread-sheet

5. What do you hear on telephones, in soft-drink machines, in cars, in toys and games?

a.mapping software

b.vehicle-navigation device

c. forms of voice output

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Сохор, харааны согогтой харалгал хүмүүс яаж цахим шууданг уншдаг вэ?

2. Вэб зохиогчид ашигласан зургийн тодорхойлолтыг чихэнд сонсогдох хэлбэрээр хөрвөөлдэг.

3. Дууны гаралтын төхөөрөмжүүд тоон өгөгдлийг авианд хувиргадаг.

4.Ярианы гаралтын зарим хэрэглээ их хачин эсвэл гайхмаар байдаг.

Exercise 6. Retell the text using the key words below.

read e-mail, use voice synthesizers, heavily graphics-oriented World Wide Web, use PC Webspeak, to provide a text description of graphics or photographs used, convert digital data, voice output on telephones, in soft-drink machines, in cars, in toys and games, in mapping software, use of speech output, replace beep, attach a voice annotation.

Text 3. Parity Bit

In the PC environment, 7- or 8-bit characters are often used to read, process, store, and transmit information. Seven bits are enough to encode all upper and lowercase characters, symbols, and function keys, which number 128, in conformance with the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). An option all eighth bit, called the “parity” bit, is used to check data integrity. When used, it is inserted between the last bit of a character and the first “stop” bit.

The parity bit is included as a simple means of error checking. There is even and odd parity. The devices at each end of the connection must have the same parity setting. The idea is that parity is agreed upon before the start of transmission. The actual configuration is done from within an operating environment such as Windows when setting up the connection preferences of the modem.

Suppose the parity chosen is odd. The transmitter will then set the parity bit in such a way as to make an odd number of 1s among the data bits and the parity bit. For example, if there are five 1s among the data bits, already an odd number, the parity bit will be set to 0. If errors are detected at the receiving device, a notification is sent in the header of the return packet, so that only corrupt bytes need to be retransmitted.

While asynchronous communication is a relatively simple and, therefore, inexpensive method of serial data transmission, it is very inefficient. This is because asynchronous transmissions include high overhead in that each byte carries at least two extra bits for the start-stop functions, which results in a 20 percent loss of useful bandwidth (2/10 = 0.20 or 20 percent). For large amounts of data, this adds up quickly. For example, to transmit 1000 characters, or 8000 bits, 2000 extra bits must be transmitted for the start and stop functions, bringing the total number of bits sent to 10,000. The 2000 extra bits is equivalent to sending 250 more characters over the link.

Key terms:

transmission –n. дамжуулал

non- timesensitive –adj. хугааны биш

serial data stream – цуваа өгөгдлийн урсгал

guide –v. удирдах, хөтлөх

timing –n. цагчлал, синхрончлол

bracket –v. хаах, тусгаарлах

character –n.тэмдэгт

assist – v. туслах

determine –v. тодорхойлох

method- n.арга, зам

ideal for –adj. тохиромжтой

terminal to host connection – төгсгөлийн төхөөрөмжөөс хост руу холболт

generate –v. үүсэх, бий болох, гарах

irregular – adj. дүрмийн бус

interval – n. интервал, хугацааны завсар

keyboard –n. компьютерийн гар

precise timing – тодорхой цагчлал

make sense - v. ойлгомжтой болгох

process –v. боловсруулах

store –v. хадгалах

transmit –v. дамжуулах

encode –v. кодлох, хөрвүүлэх

lowercase –adj. жижиг үсэг

integrity –n. бүрэн бүтэн байдал

insert –v. оруулах

“stop” bit – зогсолтын бит

error checking – adj. алдаа шалгах

operating environment – үйлдлийн орчин

set up –v. байрлуулах, суулгах

configuration –n. хэлбэр, дүрс

notification –n. мэдэгдэл

return packet – n. буцах пакет

corrupt –adj. эвдэрсэн, гэмтсэн

retransmit –v. дахин дамжуулах

byte –байт -* өгөгдлийг хэмжих нэгж

carry –v. зөөх, авч явах

loss – n. алдагдал, хохирол

add up -v .нэмэх

Exercise 1. Answer the questions

- What does the term “asynchronous” mean?

- What is asynchronous communication?

- What does asynchronous communication rely on?

- What is synchronous communication used for?

- What is parity bit?

- Where is asynchronous communication commonly used for?

Exercise 2. Translate sentences into English

1. Эдгээр битүүд нь хүлээн авах байгууламж өгөгдлийн урсгал дахь бүх тэмдэгтүүд хаана эхэлж, төгсөж байгааг тодорхойлоход туслах зорилгоор ашиглагддаг.

2. Синхрон биш холбоо нь хугацааны мэдрэмжгүй өгөгдлийг дамжуулахад ашиглагддаг

3. Синхрон биш холбоо нь хугацааны мэдрэмжгүй өгөгдлийг дамжуулахад ашиглагддаг

4. Энэ хэлбэрийн холбоо нь электрон шуудан, эсвэл веб хуудас үзэх зэрэг угаасаа бодит хугацааны биш хэрэглээнд өргөнөөр ашиглагддаг

5. Нөгөө талаар синхрон холбоог бодит хугацааны хэрэглээнүүдэд ашигладаг.

Exercise 3. Fill in the correct words.

a. the same parity setting. b. the receiving device

c. the data stream d. transmit information e. parity bit

1. The devices at each end of the connection must have . . . . . . .

2. The . . . . . . is included as a simple means of error checking.

3. In the PC environment, 7- or 8-bit characters are often used to read, process, store, and . . . . . . .

4. If errors are detected at . . . . . . , a notification is sent in the header of the return packet.

5. These bits are used to assist the receiving device in determining where each character in . . . . . . of ones and zeros begins and ends.

Exercise 4. Choose the best ending.

1. Asynchronous - (digital communication) pertaining to a transmission technique ….

2. A bit consists of ….

3. A byte is

4. Parity is …

5. A packet is …

6. Bandwidth is …

7.For analog devices, such as standard telephones, bandwidth is …

8.For digital devices, bandwidth is …

a. a sequence of adjacent bits operated on as a unit by a computer

b. a bit that is used in an error detection procedure in which a 0 or 1 is added to each group of bits so that it will have either an odd number of 1's or an even number of 1's

c. one of two values, usually 0 or 1

d. a message or message fragment

e. that does not require a common clock between the communicating devices; timing signals are derived from special characters in the data stream itself

f. measured in bits per second. The wider the bandwidth, the faster data can be sent.

g. the range of frequencies that can be transmitted and is expressed in hertz (cycles per second).

h. the amount of data that can be passed along a communications channel in a given period of time.

Exercise 5. Match the numbers to the letters

1. The parity bit is included as ……

2. The transmitter will then set the parity bit …..

3. This makes the asynchronous method of …..

4. Asynchronous communication is a simple, economical way …

5. While asynchronous communication is a relatively simple and, …

6. Asynchronous transmissions include high overhead in …

7. Synchronous communication, on the other hand, ….

8. The term “asynchronous” means that …

a. serial data transmission ideal for terminal-to-host connections

b. to connect to a wide variety of systems and services

c. to make an odd number of 1s among the data bits and the parity bit

d. therefore, inexpensive method of serial data transmission, it is very inefficient.

e. is used for real-time applications

f. that each byte carries at least two extra bits

g. a simple means of error checking

h. the bits in the serial data stream are not locked to a specific clock

Exercise 6. Retell the text using the key words below.

Asynchronous communication is used for ;The term “asynchronous” means ; asynchronous communication relies on ; These bits are used to assist ; method of serial data transmission ideal for ; a simple, economical way to connect ;This form of communication is commonly used for ; is considered asynchronous; Synchronous communication, on the other hand, 7- or 8-bit characters are often used to ; the “parity” bit is used to ;odd parity ;The transmitter will then set ;inexpensive method of serial data transmission; For large amounts of data

Text 4.Wireless technologies

Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart.

Communications satellites – The satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals.

Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.

Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology.

Infrared communication can transmit signals for small distances, typically no more than 10 meters. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.

A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs.

Key terms

Terrestrial microwave communication- дэлхийн бичил долгионы харилцаа холбоо

Cellular- үүрэн холбоо

Transmitter – дамжуулагч

Receivers- хүлээн авагч

Resembling- угсралт

Satellite- хиймэл дагуул

Relay stations- дамжин нэвтрүүлэх станц

Deflect – хазайх,хугарах, чиглэлээ өөрчлөх

propagation – тархалт

arbitrary- дурын,тохиолдлын

coverage areas – бүрхэх талбай

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1.cellular- a. an object or machine which has been invented for a particular purpose

2.transmitters b. a device sent up into space to travel round the Earth, used for collecting information or communicating by radio, television, etc

3.satellite- c. to repeat something you have heard, or to broadcast a signal, message or programme on television or radio

4.relay - d. to broadcast something, or to send out or carry signals using radio, television, etc.

5.device - e. able to move freely or be easily moved

6. transmit- f. a piece of equipment for broadcasting radio or television signals

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1.Earth-based transmitters and …………..resembling …………dishes 2. systems ………… the region covered into …………. geographic areas 3. Earth-orbiting systems are ……….. of receiving and relaying …………4. Wireless local area …………use a high-frequency ………technology 5. Each area has a low-power …………or radio relay ………. device 6. user communications from one local ………… area to the next 7. infrared communication can transmit ………… for small distances 8. network used for supporting ………….across an arbitrary number of ………………

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. Terrestrial microwave communication uses……………………

a. receivers and transmitters

b. terrestrial microwaves and

c. earth-based transmitters and receivers

d. enable communication between receivers

2. Relay stations are spaced approximately………………………..

a. approximately 28 km

b. approximately 320 km

c. approximately 101 km

d. approximately 48 km

3. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in……………….

a. typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator.

b. typically in orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) below the equator.

c. typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,40 km (22,000 mi) above the equator.

d. typically in geosynchronous 35,400 km (22,000 mi) same level the equator.

4. Cellular and PCS systems use…………………………………..

a. several radio communications technologies

b. more digital technologies

c. Information communications

d. varied radio communications technologies

5. Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar…………..

a. to digital cellular and radio technology

b. to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology

c. to digital and low-frequency radio technology

d. to digital cellular and a low-frequency technology

6. Infrared communication can transmit signals for small distances……………

a. typically no more than 108 meters

b. typically no more than 28 meters

c. typically no more than 10 meters

d. typically no more than 15 meters

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Хиймэл дагуулаас ирсэн мэдээлэлийг хүлээн авч боловсруулалт хийх өндөр чадвартай харилцаа холбоо мэдээлэл технологийн шинэлэг төхөөрөмж бол VSAT (A Very Small Aperture Terminal) юм.

2. The "very small" буюу маш жижиг өөртөө шаардлагатай  компенэнтуудаас тогтсон  VSAT  төхөөрөмж дэлхий хаанаас ч ямарч нөхцөлд ажиллахад тохиромжтойгоор хийгджээ.

3. VSAT-ийн гадна байрлах ODU (outdoor unit) гэсэн хэсэгт дээрх 1,8 м (4 ft )-ийн диаметрийн атенна дээрээс нэмэгдээд LNB (low-noise block converter) буюу (хиймэл дагуулаас ирсэн сигналыг хүлээн авах) мөн transmitter буюу (хиймэл дагуул руу сигналыг дамжуулах) мөн Feed Horn гэсэн компенэнтүүд багтдаг.

4. VSAT-ийн гадна байрлах IDU (indoor unit) гэсэн хэсэгт a small desktop appliance (хиймэл дагуулаас ирсэн сигналыг телефон утас, компьютер, телевиз харгалзах төхөөрөмжид ялган гаралтанд мэдээллийг өгдөг).

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

Terrestrial microwave, Communications satellites, Cellular and PCS systems, Radio and spread spectrum technologies, Infrared communication, A global area network (GAN), wireless LANs, spectrum technology,

Text 5. Next Generation Network

Intense competition is expected in the information networking arena over the next 5-10 years. As the competition increases, it will be essential for companies to position themselves appropriately to take advantage of their core competencies and to prepare for the emerging telecommunications environment. In this competitive environment, mergers, alliances, and the onslaught of new entrants into the market have service providers struggling to find innovative ways to retain and/or attract the most lucrative subscribers. Today’s service providers are striving to differentiate themselves within this expanding competitive landscape by searching for ways to brand and bundle new services, achieve operational cost reductions, and strategically position themselves in relation to their competition. As Figure 1 illustrates, the top 15% of today’s residential subscribers in the US are said to account for about 95% of carrier profits! Thus, many service providers are looking to Next Generation Network (NGN) services as a means to attract and/or retain the most lucrative customers.

While this paper is not intended to describe NGNs in detail, it may be helpful to provide a brief, high-level definition of what an NGN is to help set the stage for the remainder of the paper. For this paper, an NGN can be thought of as a packet-based network where the packet switching and transport elements (e.g., routers, switches, and gateways) are logically and physically separated from the service/call control intelligence. This control intelligence is used to support all types of services over the packet-based transport network, including everything from basic voice telephony services to data, video, multimedia, advanced broadband, and management applications, which can be thought of as just another type of service that NGNs support.

From a user’s perspective, today’s networks have come a long way in fulfilling their purpose of enabling people and their machines to communicate at a distance. However, a key critical success factor (among many) is focused telecommunications industry attention on NGN service concepts and how these concepts can be realized in an NGN environment, from the edges to the core of the network. This focus is lacking today, with most of the attention on specific NGN technology issues. For example, what type of access will be supported? How will the backbone transport network be designed? How will operations and management be handled in this new environment? Although these are all critical questions, we believe the most important issues to be addressed relate to NGN services and how they can be realized in an NGN environment. Common industry understanding of an NGN services vision will help crystallize the requirements for each of the technology issues, as well as identify areas where industry cooperation is needed.

Key terms

alliance-нэгдэлт

arena-газар орон

attention-анхаарал

brief-багасгасан

bundle-иж бүрдэл

carrier-зөөвөрлөгч

competition-өрсөлдөөн

differentiate-ялгах

entrant-оролцогч

expanding-өргөсдөг

innovative-шинэчлэн сайжруулах

intelligence-оюун ухаан

intend-зорих

landscape-байгал

lucrative-ашигтай

perspective-хэтийн төлөв

profit-орлого

remainder-үлдэгдэл

residential-оршин суух газрын

striving-идэвх

struggling-хөдлөх

vision-дүрслэл

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. Intense a. An overwhelming outpouring

2. lack b. To set apart for a specific use

3. expect c. to hold in position

4. separate d. operating platform

5. fulfilling e. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

6. appropriately f. To look forward to the probable occurrence or appearance o

7. environment g. of extreme force, strength, degree, or amount

8. merger h. To measure up to; satisfy

9. onslaught i. Not shared; individual

10. retain j. To be missing or deficient

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

new entrants ... the market

searching for ways to ... and bundle

to help set the stage ... the remainder

separated ... the service

services over the ... transport network

industry attention ... NGN service

telephony services to ..., video, multimedia

market have service .... struggling

from the edges ... the core of the network

... transport network be designed

new entrants into the market

searching for ways to brand and bundle

to help set the stage for the remainder

separated from the service

services over the packet-based transport network

industry attention on NGN service

telephony services to data, video, multimedia

market have service providers struggling

from the edges to the core of the network

backbone transport network be designed

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1.Today’s service providers are striving to differentiate themselves within

1. service providers

2. telecommunications environment

3. competitive landscape, new services

2. What are many service providers looking to Next Generation Network (NGN) services?

1. to support the most lucrative customers.

2. to attract and/or retain the most lucrative customers.

3. to attract and/or retain the most lucrative subscribers.

3. NGN can be thought of as … where the packet switching and transport element.

1. a packet-based network

2. routers

3. switches

4. This control intelligence is used to support all types of services over the packet-based transport network, … everything from basic voice telephony services to data, video, multimedia etc.

1. sharing

2. including

3. transmitting

5. Today’s … have come a long way in fulfilling their purpose of enabling people and their machines to communicate at a distance.

1. networks

2. companies

3. customers

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Энэ нь IP сууртай интернэтийн сүлжээнд суурилсан дэвшилтэт технологи бүхий сүлжээ юм.

2. NGN нь Программ хангамжинд суурилсан холболтын арга бөгөөд сүлжээний техник хангамж ба программ хангамжийг салгах боломжтой юм.

3. Үйлчилгээ болон дуудлагын удирдлага нь тусдаа бөгөөд ухаалаг.

4. NGN нь стандарт протоколууд болон багцын холболттой сүлжээнд суурилдаг.

5. NGN нь дуу, өгөгдөл, факс, дүрсжсэн үйлчилгээг нэг сүлжээгээр үзүүлэх боломжтой.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

Intense competition, service providers, NGN, transport elements, control intelligence, telephony services, networks, communicate, lacking, technology, access, backbone transport network, new environment

Text 6. Smart cards.

A smart looks like a credit card but contains a microprocessor and memory chip. Then inserted into a reader, it transfers data to and from a central computer, and it can store some basic financial records. It is more secure than a magnetic-stripe card and can be programmed to self-destruct it the wrong password is entered too many times.

In France, where the smart card was invented, you can buy telephone debit cards at most cafes and newsstands. You insert the card into a slot in the phone, wait for a tone, and dial the number. The time of your call is automatically calculated on the chip inside the card and deducted from the balance. The French also use smart cards as bank cards, and come people carry their medical histories on them.

The United States has been slow to embrace smart cards because of the prevalence of conventional magnetic-stripe credit cards. Moreover, the United States has large installed base of credit-cards readers and phone lines are scarcer, and merchants cannot as easily check over the phone with a centralized credit database. In these situations, stored value smart cards, sometimes called “electronic purses”, make sense because they carry their own spending limits. Thus write the Americans have been in the pilot-project stage, the Europeans, in transcending their own antiquated phone systems, have gone all out with smart cards-which, as one observer suggests, says a lot about the wacky ways in which technology spreads these days.

Key terms

Microprocessor- микропроцессор

Magnetic- соронзон

Invent- санах

Prevalence- тархалт

Transcending- давамгайлсан

Wacky- хачин

Observer- хэрэгжүүлэгч

Spreads- дэлгэрүүлэгч

Conventional- нийтлэг

Thus- ийм маягаар

Merchants- туршлага

Stripe- шинж чанар

Value- ашиг тус

Reader - хянагч

Centralize- төвлөрүүлэх

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1 memory A. an organized body of related information

2 chip B. An integrated circuit.

3 database C. A cable, rope, string, cord, or wire.

4 line D. A unit of a computer that preserves data for retrieval

5 merchant F merchandise, or commercial trade

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1. it ……..store some basic financial records.

A. Could

B. Will

C. Can

2. card and deducted ……..the balance

A. from

B. of

C. in

3. wacky ways…… which technology spreads these days.

A. of

B. from

C. in

4. have gone all out ……..smart cards-which, as one observer suggests

A. with

B. under

C. to

5. The French also use smart cards as bank cards, and come people carry their medical histories …… them.

A. with

B. To

C. On

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. where the smart card……..

A. was invented

B. was inventing

C. invented

2. call is …….calculated on the chip

A. automatic

B. automatically

C. more automatic

3. In these situations, …….value smart

A. Is trashing

B. Improved

C. Stored

4. The United States ………

A. has been slow

B. was showed

C. had been increasing

5. Thus write the Americans have been

A. in the pilot-project stage

B. own spending limits

C. magnetic-stripe credit cards

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Бүх төрлийн мэдээлэл хадгалана (хурууны хээ, зураг, тухайн хүний анкет, CV)

2. Энэ нь төлбөрийн карттай адил хэмжээтэй, хуванцар карт юм. “Ухаалаг” гэж нэрлэгддэгийн гол учир нь дээрээ чип агуулсан байдагт оршино.

3. Одоогоор “Ухаалаг” картыг хоёр үндсэн хэрэглээнд өргөнөөр ашиглаж байна.

4. Ухаалаг” байдал нь хэрэглээний цар хүрээг итгэмгүй өргөн болгож байгаа ч картны аюулгүй байдал, нууцлал хамгаалалтын асуудал нь тэр хэмжээгээр өргөн хүрээнд тавиглах хэрэгтэй болно.

5. Энэ чадварлаг боломж нь ухаалаг картийн хэрэглээг бүхий л зүйлд ашиглаж болохуйц өргөн хүрээтэй болгож, тэр ч утгаараа “Ухаалаг” гэж нэрлэгдэг

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

credit card, automatically calculated, insert the card into a slot in the phone, which technology spreads, to embrace, smart cards as bank cards, carry their own spending limits, Transcending, Wacky Observer, Spreads, Conventional, Thus, Merchants

EL102 Self assessment

2013 оны 03-р сарын 13 Нийтэлсэн Арваазана

Text 1. Microcomputer operating systems

An operating system is a group of computer programs. It helps to manage the computer. It is resources and acts as an interface between the computer and application programs. The major operating systems for microcomputers are MS-DOS, PC-DOS, The Macintosh system, UNIX and OS/2.

DOS runs on the IBM family of computers using Intel microprocessors. It is a character – based system and quires the entry of commands on a command line.

The windows operating environment provides a graphical user interface GUI lets users select from ions. These icons show the available choices. Windows also provides multitasking, allowing several application programs to run simultaneously.

The Macintosh system runs on the Motorola 68000 line of processors. It provides multitasking and a graphical environment. You can not access the operating system without the graphical environment.

UNIX allows simultaneous programs to be shared by several users at onе time. Its networking capabilities allow to share files over networks with several different kinds of equipment.

OS/2 can run application programs written for DOS and it provides a graphical environment its multitasking ability allows to run several large programs simultaneously.

Key terms

Application programs- хэрэглээний програм

Batch file- команд файл

Boot- ачаалал, ачаалах

Command interpreter- командын хөрвүүлэгч

Command line- командын мөр

Command processor- командын процессор

Default drive- хэрэглэгдэж буй диск

DOS- Disk Operating System- дискийн үйлдлийн систем

Icons- пиктограм. дүрс

Multitasking-мультипрограмчлал,олон үйлдлийн систем

Operating system- үйлдлийн систем

Root directory- үндсэн каталог

Shell- командын процессор

Subdirectory- дэд каталог

Enviroment-орчин

Run- гүйцэтгэх, ажиллуулах

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. Manage a. connection between two pieces of electronic equipment

2. Act b. control

3. Interface c. perform

4. Major d. work

5. Run on e. important, main

6. Access f. small picture on a computer screen

7. Simultaneously g. happen or exist at the same time

8. Icon h. find or see information using a computer

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

A group … computers, interface … the computer and application programs, operating system … microcomputers, entry … commands, to select … icons, can not access operating system … the graphical environment, to share files … networks, …. operating systems, … the entry of commands, … a graphical user interface, lets users … , to … simultaneously, without the graphical … , networking …., allow to share …, to run ….

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. What is an operating system?

- a group of users

- a group of computer programs

- a group of different kinds of equipment

2. DOS is a …. system.

- character based

- multi

- graphical

3. Windows provides multitasking, allowing … to run simultaneously.

- several application programs

- one application program

- several icons

4. What system runs on the Motorola 68000 line of processors?

- DOS

- Macintosh

- Windows

5. What does OS/2 provide?

- networking capabilities

- entry of commands

- graphical environment

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Үйлдлийн программ нь компьютер болон хэрэглээний программуудын хооронд интерфейс болж ажилладаг.

2. DOS нь тэмдэгтэд суурилсан систем бөгөөд командын оролтуудыг командын шугаман дээр эрэмбэлэн жагсаадаг.

3. Macintosh систем нь олон үйлдлийн болон график орчныг дэмждэг.

4. UNIX нь хэд хэдэн хэрэглэгч ижил программуудыг нэгэн зэрэг хувааж хэрэглэх боломж олгодог.

5. OS/2 нь DOS-д зориулагдсан хэрэглээний программудыг ажиллуулж чадна.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the words below.

Major operating systems, quires the entry of commands, provides a graphical user interface, lets users select , to run simultaneously, without the graphical environment , networking capabilities., allow to share files, to run simultaneously

Text 2. Sound-Output Devices

Sound-output devices produce sounds digitized sounds, ranging from and chirps to music. All these sounds are nonverbal. PC owners can customize their machines to greet each new program with the sounds of breaking glass or to moo like a cow every hour. Or they can make their computers issue the distinctive sounds available (from the book-disk combination Cool Mac Sounds) under the titles “Arrgh!!!” or “B-Movie Scream.” Or they can down-load sound files from the Internet and save them to disk, insert them in documents, and ply them. To exercise these possibilities, you need both the necessary software and sound card plugs into an expansion slot in your computer; on newer computers, it is integrated with the motherboard.

A sound card is also required in making computerized music. Most microcomputers come with sound speakers, although these speakers often have a rather tinny quality. For good sound, you need to connect external amplified speakers.

Key terms

Device - тоног төхөөрөмж, тоноглох

Digit - тоо, тоон

Range - хүрээ, хамрах

Issue - гаргах

Distinctive - өвөрмөц, ялгагдах

Combination - хослол, цогц

Title – гарчиг

Plug – залгах, залгуур

Expansion – нэмэлт, өргөтгөл

Slot – слот, байрлал

Integrated – нэгдмэл, нэгдсэн, нэгтгэсэн

Speaker – чанга яригч

Quality – чанар

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. Nonverbal a. need

2. customize b. store

3. available c. potentiality for result

4. save d. not involving words

5. possibility e. acting or coming from outside

6. software f. present and ready for use

7. require g. the programs

8. external h. to make something to a person’s individual requirements

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

Sound- ... devices, ... owners, customize their ... machines, issue the … sounds, the book-disk … , down-load … files from the Internet, … them in documents, to … these possibilities, sound … plugs, integrated with the … , making … music, … speakers, connect external … speakers.

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. What sounds do sound-output devices produce?

- analog sounds

- digitized sounds

- verbal sound

2. What are these sounds like?

- amplified

- verbal

- nonverbal

3. What can not PC owners do?

- produce verbal sounds

- customize their machines

- down-load sound files

4. What is integrated with the motherboard on newer computers?

- necessary software

- sound card

- an expansion slot

5. What do you need to connect for good sound?

- internal amplified speakers

- external amplified speakers

- computerized music

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Компьютер эзэмшигчид дууны файлыг Интернетээс татаж, дискэнд хадгалдаг ба файланд нэмж оруулдаг.

2. Дууны карт нь компьютерийн хөгжим хийхэд шаардагддаг.

3. Ихэнх компьютерүүд ихэнхдээ тааруухан чанартай ч гэсэн чанга яригчтай ирдэг.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the words below.

produce sounds, nonverbal sounds, PC owners, customize, issue sounds, down-load sound files, necessary software and sound card plugs, integrated expansion slot with the motherboard, making computerized music, sound speakers.

Text 3. Asynchronous Communication

Asynchronous communication is used for the transmission of non-time sensitive data.

The term “asynchronous” means that the bits in the serial data stream are not locked to a specific clock that guides the timing of bits between the sending and receiving devices, as in “synchronous” communication.

Instead, asynchronous communication relies on start and stop bits that bracket the characters. These bits are used to assist the receiving device in determining where each character in the data stream of ones and zeros begins and ends. This makes the asynchronous method of serial data transmission ideal for terminal-to-host connections, where characters are generated at irregular intervals from a keyboard.

Asynchronous communication is a simple, economical way to connect to a wide variety of systems and services, especially when the end device may be different with every connection attempt. This form of communication is commonly used for applications that are not real-time in nature, such as email or requesting Web pages. Any communication that is not time sensitive is considered asynchronous. Synchronous communication, on the other hand, is used for real-time applications. It relies on precise timing from a clock source, rather than start and stop bits, to make sense of the data stream.

Key terms

transmission –n. дамжуулал

non- timesensitive –adj. хугааны биш

serial data stream – цуваа өгөгдлийн урсгал

guide –v. удирдах, хөтлөх

timing –n. цагчлал, синхрончлол

bracket –v. хаах, тусгаарлах

character –n.тэмдэгт

assist – v. туслах

determine –v. тодорхойлох

method- n.арга, зам

ideal for –adj. тохиромжтой

terminal to host connection – төгсгөлийн төхөөрөмжөөс хост руу холболт

generate –v. үүсэх, бий болох, гарах

irregular – adj. дүрмийн бус

interval – n. интервал, хугацааны завсар

keyboard –n. компьютерийн гар

precise timing – тодорхой цагчлал

make sense - v. ойлгомжтой болгох

process –v. боловсруулах

store –v. хадгалах

transmit –v. дамжуулах

encode –v. кодлох, хөрвүүлэх

lowercase –adj. жижиг үсэг

integrity –n. бүрэн бүтэн байдал

insert –v. оруулах

“stop” bit – зогсолтын бит

error checking – adj. алдаа шалгах

operating environment – үйлдлийн орчин

set up –v. байрлуулах, суулгах

configuration –n. хэлбэр, дүрс

notification –n. мэдэгдэл

return packet – n. буцах пакет

corrupt –adj. эвдэрсэн, гэмтсэн

retransmit –v. дахин дамжуулах

byte –байт -* өгөгдлийг хэмжих нэгж

carry –v. зөөх, авч явах

loss – n. алдагдал, хохирол

add up -v .нэмэх

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. Transmit

2. Assist

3. Receive

4. Send

5. Connect

6. Generate

7. Determine

a. accept delivery or transmission of

b. dispatch

c. communicate

d. support

e. produce

f. join

g. resolve

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct prepositions.

1.Used … the transmission of non-time sensitive data. 2. relies …

3. variety … systems

4. be different … every connection attempt

5. form … communication

6. make sense … the data

7. each character … the data stream

8. bits … the sending and receiving devices

9. … the other hand

10. generated … irregular intervals

11. relies … precise timing … a clock source

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. What does the term “asynchronous” mean ?

a. requesting Web pages

b. pertaining to a transmission technique that requires a common clock signal between the communicating devices in order to coordinate their transmissions

c. occurring or existing at the same time or having the same period or phase

d. pertaining to a transmission technique that does not require a common clock between the communicating devices

2. What is asynchronous communication ?

a . connect to a wide variety of systems and services

b. assist the receiving device

c. make transmission ideal

d. request Web pages

3. What does asynchronous communication rely on ?

a. on start and stop bits

b. the end device

c. host connections

d. sensitive data

4. What is synchronous communication used for ?

a transmission of non-time sensitive data

b. receiving device

c. generate characters

d. the data stream

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Эдгээр битүүд нь хүлээн авах байгууламж өгөгдлийн урсгал дахь бүх тэмдэгтүүд хаана эхэлж, төгсөж байгааг тодорхойлоход туслах зорилгоор ашиглагддаг.

2. Синхрон биш холбоо нь хугацааны мэдрэмжгүй өгөгдлийг дамжуулахад ашиглагддаг

3. Энэ хэлбэрийн холбоо нь электрон шуудан, эсвэл веб хуудас үзэх зэрэг угаасаа бодит хугацааны биш хэрэглээнд өргөнөөр ашиглагддаг

4. Нөгөө талаар синхрон холбоог бодит хугацааны хэрэглээнүүдэд ашигладаг.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

is used for the transmission , means that the bits , locked to a specific clock , asynchronous communication relies on ,bits are used to , the asynchronous method , economical way to connect , form of communication , requesting Web pages, time sensitive , for real-time applications, relies on precise timing from a clock .

Text 4. Radio and television

Digital television standards and their adoption worldwide.

In a broadcast system, the central high-powered broadcast tower transmits a high-frequency electromagnetic wave to numerous low-powered receivers. The high-frequency wave sent by the tower is modulated with a signal containing visual or audio information. The receiver is then tuned so as to pick up the high-frequency wave and a demodulator is used to retrieve the signal containing the visual or audio information. The broadcast signal can be either analog (signal is varied continuously with respect to the information) or digital (information is encoded as a set of discrete values).

The broadcast media industry is at a critical turning point in its development, with many countries moving from analog to digital broadcasts. This move is made possible by the production of cheaper, faster and more capable integrated circuits. The chief advantage of digital broadcasts is that they prevent a number of complaints common to traditional analog broadcasts.

Key terms:

Broadcast – өргөн нэвтрүүлэг

receiver – хүлээн авагч

signal - дохио

frequency - давтамж

high-powered broadcast tower өндөр хүчин чадалтай өргөн нэвтрүүлгийн цамхаг

electromagnetic wave- цахилгаан соронзон долгион

circuit – гүйдэл

capable – боломжтой,чадвартай,эзэлхүүнтэй

visual – дүрс, дүрс бичлэг, хүлээн авах

adoption – ашиглах,зөвшөөрөх, хүлээн авах

continuously- тасралтгүй,байнгийн

chief – гол,үндсэн

advantage – давуу тал

pick up – хүлээн авах,эзэмших

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. broadcast a. the number of times something happens within a particular

period or the fact of something happening often or a large

number or times

2. advantage b. the act of picking someone or something up, or the place where

it happens

3. receiver c. an action, movement or sound which gives information,

message, a warning or an order

4. signal d. a condition giving a greater chance of success

5. frequency e. a condition giving a greater chance of success

6. pick up f. to send out a programme on television or radio

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1. tower is……….with 2. high-………wave 3. broadcast media industry 4. analog to ………broadcasts 5. faster and more ……….integrated circuits 6. central high-powered ………….tower 7. advantage of digital ………. is that 8. electromagnetic wave to numerous …………. receivers

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. In a broadcast system, the central high-powered broadcast tower transmits……..

a. a low – frequency magnetic

b. useful high voltage

c. a high-frequency electromagnetic wave

d. to receivers

2. The broadcast signal can be…………………

a. digital

b. direct or un direct

c. faster or slower

d. either analog or digital

3. Many countries moving from………………..

a. digital broadcast

b. traditional analog broadcasts.

c. analog to digital broadcasts

d. functional wide broadcast

4. This move is made possible by the production of cheaper, ……………………

a. faster and more capable integrated circuits

b. more direct circuits

c. more faster capable circuits

d. stable capable circuits

5. The receiver is then tuned so as to pick up……………………

a. the low -frequency wave and a demodulator

b. the high wave and a demodulator

c. the frequency wave and a demodulator

d. the high-frequency wave and a demodulator

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Хиймэл дагуул дээр байрлуулсан дахин дамжуулах станцыг сансарын холбоо гэнэ.

2. Сансарын хиймэл дагуул дээр байрласан дахин дамжуулах станц газрын станцуудтай холбогдоно.

3. Сансарын холбоо нь орон зайнаас үл хамааран хэдийд ч хэнтэй ч мэдээлэл солилцох боломжтой.

4. Холбооны хэрэгсэлийг байрлуулсан хиймэл дагуулын хэрэгсэл нь дэлхийг 3 замаар тойрдог. 1. LEO-орбит буюу тойрог зам 1200-1500км 2. MEO- орбит буюу тойрог зам 10000-12000км 3. GEO- орбит буюу тойрог зам экватороос 36786к

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

broadcast system, high-powered broadcast tower, high-frequency, electromagnetic wave, low-powered receivers, high-frequency wave, signal, receiver, audio information, broadcast signal, analog or digital, information is encoded, broadcast media industry, integrated circuits

Text 5. Satellite uplink upgrade

Satellite uplink upgrade – TNS operates a satellite uplink service that allows live or pre-recorded video to be uplinked to satellites and made available to anyone that has authorization and access to a downlink facility.  The most common uses for this service are athletic events that are broadcast from campus, Athletic Department coaches’ shows, new conferences and promotions, and interviews with campus experts for major broadcast and cable TV feeds. There is also a small amount of use by the public at large.



Much of the current equipment and technology is about 20 years old and is no longer supported by the manufacturers. Another significant issue, which surfaced sooner than expected, is the requirement by the broadcasters for football and basketball games for Dual Thread High Definition (HD) video for many games next season. To support this, we require a full upgrade of the entire system.

Since our funding model relies on this “game revenue” to break even, this has forced a technology and spending decision upon us.  TNS is investigating alternatives for supporting this service.

Video conferencing and streaming service expansion – TNS is engaged in enhancing video conferencing and video streaming services to satisfy a broadening customer base.  These services have been supported for several years within TNS, under a lesser defined model.  Relatively recent changes in technology and increased demand for these services on campus is cause for TNS to review our technical, operations, and support capabilities.

Key terms

authorization-зөвшөөрөх

available-боломжтой

broadening-өргөтгөх

capability-чадамж

conference-хурал

decision-шийдвэр

define-тодорхойлох

demand-шаардлага

engage in-оролцох

expansion-өргөтгөл

facility-хүчин чадал

increase-өсөх

investigate-шалгаж үзэх

manufacturer-үйлдвэрлэгч

relatively-харьцуулвал

revenue-ашиг орлого

satellite-хиймэл дагуул

satisfy-хангах

significant-ач холбогдолтой

support-дэмжих

surface-гадарга

uplink-өсгөх холболт

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. broadcaster a to come or go in large numbers

2. streaming b to replace with a more recently released, enhanced version

3. downlink c to provide with improved, advanced

4. enhancing d to send a transmission or signal

5. require e to demand

6. upgrade f a transmission path for the communication of signals

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

TNS operates uplink service

access a downlink facility

broadcast campus

interviews campus experts

small of use by the public

upgrade of the system

model relies this

alternatives for this service

engaged enhancing

services to a broadening customer base

changes technology

cause TNS

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1 TNS operates a …

a. downlink facility

b. satellite uplink service

c. pre-recorded video

2 Much of the current equipment and technology is …

a. access to a downlink facility

b. the requirement by the broadcasters

c. no longer supported by the manufacturers

3 Our funding model has forced a … and spending decision upon us. 

a. Technology

b. Transmission

c. Broadcaster

4 TNS is engaged in enhancing video conferencing and video streaming services to satisfy…

a. a spending decision upon us

b. an upgrading of the entire system

c. a broadening customer base

5 These services have been supported for several years within …, under a lesser defined model. 

a. a campus

b. TNS

c. a service

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Хиймэл дагуулаас дамжуулсан нэвтрүүлгийг кабелийн сүлжээний тусламжтайгаар хүлээн авдаг телевизийг кабелийн телевиз гэж нэрлэдэг.

2. Радио дамжуулах технологи болон хэрэглээнээс шалтгаалан радио спектрийн өөр өөр хэсгүүдийг хэрэглэдэг.

3. Өнөөдөр 10 улсын сансрын буудлаас хөөрсөн, 50 гаруй улсын хиймэл дагуулууд ашиглагдаж байна.

4. Хиймэл дагуул нь олон янзын зорилгоор ашиглагддаг.

5. Хиймэл дагуул нь ихэнхдээ хагас биеэ даасан, компьютерын удирдлагатай системээр ажилладаг.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

Text 6. Cathode-Ray Tubes (CRTs)

The most common form of display screen is the CRT. A CRT, for cathode-Ray tubes is a vacuum tube used as a display terminal. This same kind of technology is found not only in the screens of desktop computers but also in television sefs and flight-information monitors in airports.

Images are represented on the screen by individual dots called pixels. A pixel, for “picture element”, is the smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. A stream of bits defining the image is sent from the computer to the CRT's electrongun, where the coater with phosphor, it lights up selected pixels to generate an image on the screen.

Key terms

Individual

Pixel

Represented

Generate

Shades

Electrongun

Phosphor

Exercise 1. Match the numbers to the letters.

1. Tube a. A mental picture of something

2. Shade b. An underground railroad tunnel

3. Image c. An area or a space of partial darkness.

4. Screen d. A position in a circuit or device

5. Terminal f. The movie industry

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct words.

1. smallest unit …… the screen

2. screen….. individual dots called pixels

3. pixels ….. generate an image

4. screens…. desktop computers

5. flight-information monitors….. airports.

Exercise 3. Choose the best answer.

1. This same kind of ……is found

A information

B Technology

C Terminal

2. it lights up ……..pixels

A selected

B turned

C went

3. The most…… form of display screen

A generate

B computers

C common

4. Bits defining the ……is sent from the computer

A screen

B image

C electrongun

5. The …….unit on the screen

A smallest

B biggest

C longest

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Компьютерийн дэлгэц нь нэг бол Катод туяаны хоолой, нэг бол Шингэн болор дэлгэц гэх мэт нимгэн дэлгэц байдаг.

2. Дэлгэц нь шууд тэжээлээ цахилгаан эх үүсвэрээс авдаг бөгөөд түүний гадна байгаа товчлуурын тусламжтайгаар дэлгэцийн хэлбэрийг өөрчлдөг

3. Монитор нь компьютер дэх мэдээлэл, текст, дүрс, зургийг дэлгэцэнд харуулдаг тусдаа эд анги юм

4. Монитор гэдэг нь компьютер дэхь зүйлсийг дэлгэцээр гаргах боломжтой салангид төхөөрөмжийг хэлдэг.

Exercise 5. Retell the text using the key words below.

The most common form of display, display screen, dots called pixels, generate an image, bits defining the image, Images are represented, Represented, Shades….